Purpose of the controller for an electric bike, mechanism, and principle of operation


In each bike, an electrical component is the controller responsible for the operation of the engine.

Technological progress has contributed to the creation of its modern species, which are fundamentally different from their predecessors, resembling a massive rheostat. They have no moving parts, and the transmission of electricity to the motor is regulated by the duration of the incoming pulses.

So how does the controller work?

Basically, this device is designed to supply battery power from the battery to the motor wheel. The magnetic field created by the current flowing through the windings repels and attracts the rotor magnets, which sets the wheel in motion. The main task of the controller is to control the speed of the bicycle engine. But it has other additional functions that can be divided into:

Regulation of engine speed.

Torque control.

Motor protection.

The controller receives a signal from the accelerator handle. Based on the received information, it controls the engine speed. When spinning the engine quickly, it is very important that it can also be stopped quickly if necessary. For the engine to last longer, smooth and soft braking is required, by the method of changing the pulse duration, which is also included in the functions of this device. It is very useful to be able to reverse, i.e. backstop. More advanced models of these devices have the ability to supply the motor with voltage of the opposite main polarity, thereby ensuring the optimal mode of change in engine rotation. The reverse adjustment, to ensure safety, occurs at low speeds.

It is very important for any bike with an electric motor that the controller can determine the voltage level in the batteries and, when it falls below the threshold value, can disconnect the engine from power. The threshold value is considered to be 87.5%. In modern, most advanced models, the cut-off threshold can be adjusted to the specific type of batteries used in the bike, thus protecting them from excessive discharge.

The controller can monitor the temperature thanks to the temperature sensor installed in it, which prevents current overload in the bicycle’s electrical system.

In addition to the motor wheel, all other bicycle components are connected to it, for the connection of which high-quality multicore connecting wires are protected, protected by silicone heat-resistant insulation.

A number of important parameters, such as, for example, battery voltage, maximum operating current, etc., determine which batteries and electric motors the controllers can work with.

Is it possible to repair the controller?

One of the few breakdowns that can happen with an electric bike is the failure of this element. What is recommended in this case?

First of all, having removed the controller, you need to determine whether it can be repaired, which is easy to do simply by looking at them: the appearance will tell you which part needs to be replaced. If repairs are possible, you can ask for the necessary parts in the bicycle equipment store or on the online market.

f it is no longer possible to repair the controller, it will have to be replaced. This can be done, again, in consultation with the sellers of this vehicle, because even with the external similarity of the device and the matching connectors for connecting the corresponding components, the controllers produced by different manufacturers can be not ideal in different ways. Differences may affect other indicators. To get the maximum efficiency of the engine, you need a full-time controller designed to work with it or universal, designed for a voltage of 24, 36, 48 V and power lying within 200-1000 watts. The nice thing is that their cost is almost the same.

Written by https://www.little-dragon-bikes.eu/

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